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Vega - Disappearing nickel
Are we seeing transmutation?
In this video, a nickel foil was cut into a strip and formed into a spiral anode by the researcher HENK.
A low pressure atmosphere containing added hydrogen and residual air was used.
The nickel apparently 'disappeared', but not in a continuous way, via a large self-organised plasmoid that formed on the end.
In the above image composite, we see the atomic emission spectrum for hydrogen and helium. In the upper right frame, we see part of the nickel foil spiral after it has settled into a steady state for some time after part of the foil has vanished. There is a red purple/mauve colouration.
In the bottom right image we see the colour of the local excited chamber gas as part of the nickel is disappearing. At this point, the plasmoid on the end is situated behind the insulated anode support, so the camera is not saturated with the bloom of the highly energetic event. We see the gas is very yellow in appearance.
If we run the following query for H and Ni exchange reactions
E1 in ('H', 'Ni') and E2 in ('H', 'Ni') order by MeV desc
on the MFMP / Parkhomov / Greenyer / Power LENR reaction calculator, we see that Ni + Ni reactions mostly tend to Fe, Co, Ni and Zi isotopes where as ALL first iteration exchange reactions between H and Ni produce He as one of the products.
It is clear that we need to re-run this experiment with a spectrometer at the same time.
Full self-organised plasma sphere on non-spherical anode structure
One thing that should be noted is that, unlike the hemispherical ‘pimples’ we have seen other self-organised plasmas form, here we see a full sphere, notably centred on the nickel foil thickness (0.15mm) and width (3mm).
It also appears as if there is a small protrusion of the foil through the left side of the brightest part of the spheroid. Notably, this protrusion is within a second, less obvious boundary / ‘atmosphere’ that surrounds the bright core. Could this be like the boundary-like effects seen in Super NOVA and Correa-like experiments?
Surface tension in plasmas related to double layer formation - and its implications for VEGA
When reviewing the comments above, a crowd researcher called ‘PlasmaFan’ sent a paper with the same name as this section header.
This paper, which you can download from here, describes how stable, self-organising plasma structures form like the ones observed in VEGA experiments as well as how they rely on the surface tension of their double layer(s). It appears that the boundary / ‘atmosphere’ that I observed above, is in fact, this double layer zone. The paper also provides the relevant equations and gas ionisation critical thresholds required to understand the parameters for formation.
We have clearly seen these double layer ‘surface tension’ related effects in another VEGA experiment recently, where ‘balls of fire’ as the author calls them, move through one another. Here is an animation showing just this.
And with a little contrast adjustment, you can easily see the double layers containing the bright cores.
The paper notes that as long as you can keep feeding the double layer ‘ball of fire’ electrons in an ion environment and keep the potential bias within critical parameters it will sustain itself. This however, requires an anode. But what if you could make it a virtual anode, free-floating, so that there is reduced risk of structural failure? Of course, you would need to magnetically and electrically confine it, so it would have to be constantly fed. I have discussed before how, given the right conditions, these electrical structures can be built and collapse at electronic speeds (credit Ken Shoulders). You can see the latter here:
What you could do then, is keep feeding it smaller parcels of charge clusters in the form of Exotic Vacuum Objects (EVOs) of coherent matter or maybe even feed it through ion acoustic oscillations which could be achieved through even low frequency RF or sound. If using the EVO method, these contain say 100,000 electrons per ion. The ions need not be protons alone however, they could be deuterium or an ion of argon, fluorine or tungsten and they could be very highly ionised in the EVO, to the point of all of their electrons being held in a de-localised way as discussed by Lutz Jaitner in his ICCF-22 presentation.
Passing into the fireball, they conglomerate and would re-organise like water droplets coalescing in zero gravity with the ions passing to the core.
Dr. Alexander Parkhomov has established that when dense matter is over a certain temperature, he calculates to be in excess of 1000 ºC, nucleons and electron collisions can synthesise cold neutrino / anti-neutrino pairs. These can stimulate weak processes that wold allow protons to become neutrons and neutrons to become protons. If the latter was to occur, an electron would be emitted from neutrons in the the core, feeding the sheath and making the core more positively charged.
I discussed some of these aspects with Mats Lewan at the BEM 2019 conference.
There are several potential ways of producing energy including:
nucleon re-organisation (which may be assisted by cold [anti]neutrino pair production interactions inside the free-floating ‘ball of fire’). This would produce kinetic energy in the products that might be harnessed by the double-layer’s dense electrons and radiated as photons
high energy photon emission from condensing electrons into the structure causing ionisation of surrounding gasses producing ion-electron pairs which according to Stoyan Sarg can harness Zero Point energy which would then, after magnetic de-stabilisation of the pair, be radiated as photons or as energetic electrons if the pair relationship was broken
given sufficient matter density, nucleon decay could result as first proposed by Solin in his 1992 patent application. This would produce mesons, muons and electrons amongst other products which could lead to other nuclear reactions and photon emissions
Coherent condensation of other matter with energy radiated as photons allowing for rectification of thermal energy
Any high energy photons emitted could produce electrons from suitable non-contact containment structure metals via the photoelectric process that could be rectified or otherwise harnessed.
Given the parameters and stability of the process used, energy could be released and in some cases harnessed in the various forms including, high frequency gravity waves, heat, light, electricity, electromagnetic, scalar, cold neutrinos and their clusters, neutrinos and other particles.
The specifics of nickel foil used
Following publication of this article, the researcher HENK provided the source and specifications of the foil used. It is the kind of metal strips used in domestic toasters, interestingly, these were the first heater elements used by Dr. Alexander Parkhomov in his Ni + H glow stick experiments. Putting that aside, here are the details.
0.15mm thick x 3mm wide
From the suppliers website it states the specification of the tape as:
2.4869 is an austenitic nickel-chromium alloy with around 1.5% cobalt and around 1% manganese and iron. The material is characterized by good scaling resistance and high electrical resistance. It has a relatively small temperature coefficient. Alloy 80 20 has good resistance to corrosion and is not ferromagnetic. It can be spot welded well and used in the temperature range up to 1150 °C.
So the nominal ratio of Ni to Cr is 80:20 with around 1.5% cobalt and around 1% manganese and iron. If we look at the reactions of atomic hydrogen with these elements, we again see that each one produces helium. Using the LENR reaction calculator and the query as follows:
E1 in ('H') and E2 in ('Cr', 'Mn', 'Fe', 'Co', 'Ni') order by MeV desc
if we ignore the radio nuclide 60Co, the single iteration results are as follows.
So, whilst there are more outcomes (including with metal:metal reactions), the tentative conclusion that helium could be being produced, does not change.
Early experiment observations
In the same experiment, the ribbon first lost the dense, tight part of the coil, then it produced a series of smaller self-organising plasma spheres. These were semi-stable at times, but did shift along the ribbon also. Knowing that the ribbon width was 3mm, we might suppose these structures were of similar order of magnitude diameter.
One might also notice that the heating and expansion of the coil resulted in it producing a larger coil diameter during the experiment.
Before and after
The nice metal tape spiral has all gone at the end of the experiment, revealing a somewhat‘smoothed’ bolt and grub screw used to mount it. There is a hard boundary between that and the main supporting structure which is left blackened.
In the end on view, we can see vortex-like features in the deposited materials, such as in the black deposit on the end and the two wave/tear drop like structures on the left side of the nut. This is similar to features in the Super NOVA reactor.