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Vacuum polarisation in LENR and Hutchison Effect
Proper orientation of a bi-polar universe
The importance of a strong static field has been known to some researchers in LENR for a long time. At the start of the Martin Fleischmann Memorial Project (MFMP), we considered using Zeolites like Iraj Parchamazad - these are claimed to have permanent 3 billion V/m field, with no need to power it or set it up. That is a LOT, but is that level really needed?
Vacuum polarisation appears to be important in many of the technologies I have explored these past 10+ years and I will talk about this in my stream on Sun 15th Jan 2023 @ 22:00 in relation to other work that was conducted in the 1980s that replicated a subset of John Hutchison's findings that is currently being replicated in Russia and that we started to investigate last year.
Vacuum polarisation was critical in John Hutchison's work, he would use say a 500,000 V Van de Graaff at 15ft, approximately 100,000 V/m or 1000 V/cm. Is it required to be even this high though, as Ken Shoulders never used this level to the best of my knowledge.
Unidirectional high rate of change of discharge, possibly within this field is critical however. Obviously I have seen all of the key videos from Johns most prolific time now and in them, you hear a periodic "BANG" with a flash and this is a disruptive discharge, totally critical to Tesla's mobile demonstrations and John reproduced it accurately from Tesla's Colorado springs notes. John says no disruptive discharge, no effects and in the breakdown of the dielectric a strong electric field is first set up which itself polarises the vacuum, so this may be all that is needed.
You can see the steps of charge buildup and then periodic disruptive discharges noted in George Hathaway's book "Mindbending".
After several minutes to perhaps half an hour of filling the space and covering the equipment with electrostatic charge, he would switch on the power to the high voltage transformers which would charge up several capacitors, some with an air spark gap across them. These would discharge with a very loud BANG and flash of light every 30 – 60 seconds depending on the transformer rating and gap width.
At this point, it must be noted that ‘static charge’ covering the equipment, would imply a lot of ‘static electricity’, and I am minded to agree with Alexander Shishkin, that this is in fact the same as Exotic Vacuum Objects (EVOs)/Charge Clusters. The direction of these into and accumulation in Hutchison Effect target samples required the samples to be placed below the charge cluster generators with respect to earth, on a non conductive support. Typically John used a plywood or plastic crate with a piece of formica on it often with additional pieces of tissue paper under samples.
Of course if the samples were grounded, so would the charge clusters be and as we all know, lightning and its leading ball lightning, like to conduct to ground, via a metal preferably, hence the use of grounded metal in lightning conductors. Hutchison Effect and EVOs are in the same family as the natural phenomena of Ball Lightning.
EVOs were derived from study and replication of the considered core basics of Johns work by Ken Shoulders. John worked with static charge and disruptive discharges and this was ever present in the work of Tesla.
The polarisation will play a role in self organisation of these clusters in the environment as will the disruptive discharge. Further more, EVOs can be produced by the disruptive discharge itself and other means such as corona and gamma sources both of which John had, with the latter being in the form of a large piece of uranium ore.
Indeed Shishkin et. al. used 137Cs (a fission product of uranium), and a high voltage pulsed dielectric barrier discharge of 590V over a distance of 8mm in air, which equates to 737.5 V/cm which is in line with that 1000 V/cm calculated above from apparatus used by John, but proved to be active at this lower level.
John was working in air, a dielectric comprised mostly of Nitrogen and Oxygen. Shishkin et. al. have calculated that Hydrogen isotopes require 2-4000 less energy than any element from Lithium onwards (as little as 5eV) to produce EVOs. Of course, both Nitrogen and Oxygen are far larger nuclei than hydrogen isotopes. Therefore, in a low pressure gas environment containing hydrogen and a little Xe atoms for EVO stabilisation, it is very reasonable to consider that the few hundred V pulses over a number of cm used by Ken Shoulders would reasonably be able to realise long lived charge clusters.
Teslas production of EVOs before they had a name
It is not surprising that Ken Shoulders discovered unusual matter production given John Hutchison’s reliance on key aspects of Tesla’s apparatus and the latter’s statements on unusual electric discharge derived structures being launched from cathodes. [Material shared 1st Sept 2020 on MFMP FB] | [Additional material by FBI]
He [Tesla] illustrated the sort of thing that the particles will be by recalling an incident that occurred often enough when he was experimenting with a cathode tube. Then, sometimes, a particle larger than an electron, but still very tiny, would break off from the cathode, pass out of the tube and hit him. He said he could feel a sharp, stinging pain where it entered his body, and again at the place where it passed out. The particles in the beam of force, ammunition which the operators of the generating machine will have to supply, will travel far faster than such particles as broke off from the cathode, and they will travel in concentrations, he said.
As Dr. Tesla explained it, the tremendous speed of the particles will give them their destruction-dealing qualities. All but the thickest armored surfaces confronting them would be melted through in an instant by the heat generated in the concussion.
July 11, 1934, pp. 1, 15
Natural EVO production in Lightning
With respect to Lighting production in a storm (which necessarily has an EVO as an ionisation channel leader):
“The measured electric field inside a thunderstorm just prior to a lightning strike at 12,900 feet was 3400 volts/cm. The average maximum field for 9 different thunderclouds was 1300 volts/cm.”
“Electric Field Intensity Inside of Natural Clouds”, Journal of Applied Physics 19, 481 (1948); Published Online: 28 April 2004
As you can see from this 1945 data above, most of the field strengths are between ± 500 V/cm. One might imagine that exceeding this by a good margin might result in lightning formation. This is exactly consistent with the field strength used by John Hutchison and and Alexander Shishkin et. al. in air.
Though dry air has a breakdown voltage of 30 kV/cm, humidity and pressure can lower this. An EVO formed by disruptive discharge in a cloud replete with static charge build up, can drift to a higher potential (say ground) through air, ionising it on its way, once ionised, a larger scale electrical discharge can occur through the now ionised channel at a much lower V/cm. This is how Ken Shoulders describes the process of lightning.
Although Ken Shoulders stated that all spark discharges, like the ones used by Tesla, produced EVOs. Having studied John Hutchison’s effect, he highlighted that lightning discharges were lead by a macro EVO in the form of Ball Lightning. The data from 1945 on electric fields in a thundercloud is entirely consistent with the fields present in John Hutchison apparatus and, separately and independently, those found to produce EVOs by Shishkin et. al. that the latter’s group called Magneto-Toro Electrical Radiation / Clusters.
Hydrogen isotope containing low pressure chambers, combined with high rate of change, unidirectional pulsed discharges of a few 100V, from a low work-function, ideally self-healing cathode (like the fed tungsten wire or mercury as used by Tesla in his 1930s “electrical particles of matter” generation device AKA “Death Ray”) along a dielectric channel or capillary to induce [magneto] hydrodynamic shear would lead to effective production of EVOs.