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A theory of strange radiation and its connection to LENR (in Russian with English sur-titles)
Andrey Vladimirovich Chistolinov (JIHT RAS).
A theory of strange radiation has been constructed, which considers it as a new type of penetrating radiation. All its main properties are explained. Equations for strange radiation are obtained, as well as equations for traces of strange radiation on the surface of solid-state detectors. The mechanisms of generation of strange radiation are considered for the first time. Good agreement between theoretical predictions and experiments in which strange radiation was observed was shown.
The relationship between the generation of strange radiation and LENR processes is considered, and a common source of strange radiation and LENR is determined.
Thus, it is shown that the proposed theory can be a practical guide for the design of LENR reactors.
Thanks to Andrey Chistolinov for working with me on the translations of the paper and slides, which can be downloaded from the following links.
Slides in English
Version of Video now with English slides (you lose mouse pointer though)
Here is a real-time generated English transcript of most of the presentation that was generated during the live presentation (it is a mess, but here it is anyhow)
Oh well, if we talk about strange radiation, then the second event. which will be important for us happened after about 30 It's the year 2000, when strange radiation was actually discovered for the first time. Strange radiation, as the Russian called it This is some new new kind of penetrating radiation that leave characteristic tracks on photographic Here in the form of such a periodic trace.
And I must say that Rudskoy called strange radiation initially only such tracks, in any case, only such tracks were described in the first article of the trio, leaving such a characteristic periodic Trace And later in numerous other experiments, similar tracks were obtained, for example, in 2007. Strange radiation was detected during testing of electrical equipment in short circuit mode in Unintentionally strange radiation in experiments with a low-pressure healing discharge is this experiment.
And besides that, back in 2000, the effect of accumulation of sources of strange radiation in matter was discovered. That is, it was shown that the substance that was subjected to some kind of extreme exposure to part of the explosion, as it was with the Russian, is the source, but this strange radiation continues to remain with them for many hours.
And a lot was said at one time about the energy estimates of this radiation country, and the energy estimate that was presented in the work of Kursk in It was based on the assumption of the electromagnetic nature of the interaction, but there is a way to estimate the energy of this particle of strange radiation. Let's interact. With x-ray film, and here the idea is That's what And we know that the characteristic length of the track is about one millimeter, the characteristic width is about 10 Microns And the grain size on the film is about one in this way the characteristic number of blackened grains is about 10 in the fourth. Well, assuming that in order for blackening of the grain to occur during It must absorb the energies we get an estimate of the energy of such a particle, no less.
This is, of course, a greatly underestimated, very much underestimated, but This is an estimate of the energy of strange radiation particles from below, which is not based on any special assumptions. And this energy is actually very large. So What is the amazing fact here, but we have the meaning of order, then, as physical processes give rise to a characteristic energy of the order of one particle.
Well, this is the typical energy of electrons in an electric discharge layer of pressure atmosphere, and the rest of the particles have even less energy, which means the sources of List the main properties, despite the fact that everyone seems to know, but, nevertheless, there are always people who Somehow these properties are seen differently and in order for us to understand, in fact, we want to explain.
Apparently, it is necessary, apparently, it is necessary all the same to voice, then, Well, as we said, the sources of this strange radiation can be materials that were exposed to these So, paradoxically, radiation on the one hand has a high penetrating ability to pass through solid materials on the other hand on the same on the surface of the same materials. It leaves traces traces, for some reason they are found only on the surface, the traces are periodic.
And the drawing In general, an individual character, that is, there are no two traces with exactly the same structure, In addition, But this point, which is usually overlooked, but which was noted by Rudskaya, has never been observed accompanying Delta of electrons near strange emission tracks, but in fact this means only one thing, that strange emission is not a realistic object, because otherwise, uh, electrons should have arisen, that is, electrons that the object knocks out.
From ordinary dense matter, Well, quite an amazing property is that the main Trace of strange radiation can be accompanied by an accompanying trace parallel to the main and the characteristic distance between such traces is 100 150 Microns, that is, macroscopic dimensions. Here are the main publications of licensed journals on strange radiation, and Well, I will briefly talk about the strange radiation model, which we have built today, then I will move on to a new result. So, at the heart of the model.
As many probably know Already lie the anomalous following the assumption that the anomalous properties of the radiation country can be explained by assuming that they are a manifestation of some new matter that weakly interacts with ordinary matter. What is the feature of this matter, firstly, it must be stable must be in the condensed phase contained in large quantities in a dense atomic This material should not be described not described by standard models, that is, the particles with which it is composed are not constituents of the standard model and such matter, we will call related matter earlier means.
The Latin roots of the fifth essence, What does the Fifth Essence mean, And why the Fifth Essence, what does it mean and why do we use this term The fact is that this term, A, was introduced by Aristotle at the time of Aristotle even before Aristotle in ancient philosophy, but it was believed that all substances are made up of three of the four basic parts. Earth Water Air and fire Aristotle bicycle, and
The fifth element, which has no analogues in the sense of perception, the first four elements, According to this concept, they are able to turn into each other and According to modern points of Yes, it's just a state of aggregation, that is, the earth corresponds to a solid body, water, liquid, air, gas, fire. But the Fifth Element stood with manna, and from the point of view of Aristotle, this is all penetrating very light, a and e, the ability to maintain rotational motion is eternal and unchanged, this is how it was characterized, the question Well, if this is so, can we ascribe some analogue, And in modern physics, And in modern ideas, And we ascribe to him, but
special nature, that is, we believe it, we believe that the 5th Element is a kind of non-brionic dark matter, the state of aggregation is the base of the condensate. This is indeed a special state of aggregation. It turns out that it is under these conditions that this Fifth Element sensor is able to explain the observed. The observed effects of strange radiation are interesting, that's what about the same time, that is, these are two and a half three thousand years ago, similar ideas arose in Eastern philosophy.
And the idea of matter accessible to sensory perception, which can be in a dense atomic substance, appeared on the territory of modern India China Well, they exist to this day in India at present, the idea of this matter forms the basis of yoga, And in China these ideas form the basis of the Qigong system and moreover, in these systems they are based on internal experience and in both of these systems the meridian channels through which this matter flows are described. Yes, in India it is called prana in the Chinese. And this is based not only practice, but the south and the cyclone, but the whole of Chinese medicine, which is used to this day.
But from the point of view of modern physics. From the point of view of modern physics, but the quintessence can be identified with dark matter, as I said, or more precisely with macroscopic dark matter. This means that most of the condensation in our galaxy is not in dense atomic matter, as is the case on earth actually form some Gala around the galaxy?
The unique property of the quintessence is that it can interact quite intensively with the tomarous substance, as a condensed medium, but at the same time interact very weakly with the particles of the standard model at the level of individual particles. And what explains the lack of traces of quintessence in experiments on accelerators? Ah, but I already talked about this at the Klin for Telepin seminar last year and I won’t repeat it anyway. Who wants to find these, right?
And the main properties of this quintessence, its density is much less than the density of air under normal conditions, the consistency can pass through the air and dense tomato substance, we believe that it is the base of the liquid under normal conditions and inside this base of the liquid there may be micro inclusions of the solid phase. And at the same time fills all the dense matter on the surface of the Earth, its boundary coincides with the boundary of dense matter.
And before actually moving on to the presentation of the model itself. In a little introduction to The theory of superfluidity in some features that we will need in what follows
On which the entire proposed model is built, it is depicted on this slide, in principle. If you understand well memory, here is the basic idea everything else could not be told that everything else follows from this. Here, these figures show how an ordinary liquid rotates, how a superfluid liquid rotates.
So, here is the left drawing of an ordinary liquid in general, we put the vessel on a stand, we give a rotational movement. And after a while the liquid takes some steady state, such a deflection of the surface form is formed. parabola grooves fluid, rotates in a completely different way, i.e. the transformation of the base of the fluid, more precisely, with the rotation of the heart of the current component, quantum filaments are formed.
And in fact, the faster the rotation, the greater the angular velocity, the greater the concentration of these quantum filaments of the liquid will mean, what is the fundamental difference And if you go into a rotating frame of reference for a classical fluid, it will be a fluid at rest, Yes, in a frame of reference, If you go to a rotating frame of reference for a quantum fluid, it will not be, because, but inside there will be a rotational And if we talk about the device of this quantum vortex, then I arranged it as follows, and the linear speed.
Depends as unit on R where R is the distance to the axis of the vortex for a rectilinear vortex, but at the center of this vortex there is some core so-called Core in which the superfluidity is destroyed. Here it can be estimated based on the knowledge of the speed of sound there in this Superfluid here actually is the radius at which the speed reaches the speed of sound. Here, it is considered that the destruction of superfluidity occurs.
So what's going on, what's going on the liquid actually, if we go back to this picture, see the maximum energy of a classical liquid particle in the classical case is achieved near the wall of the rotating vessel. The maximum fluid energy in Plato for a quantum fluid is reached near a?
Near the core of the thread And the showcase? AND These two energies are an energy that differs by a lot of the order, generally speaking, that is, simply by bringing the reversal into a slow rotation, and the flowing quantum liquid, we get speeds that are actually close to the speed of sound in this liquid.
And this is a completely paradoxical That is, in fact, we have a flowing fluid. Accumulation of kinetic energy A and the ratio of kinetic energies Which can be conditionally called the accumulation coefficient of the ratio of genetic energies in the classical and quantum cases, it will be equal to the square of the ratio of the diameters of the vessels.
Well, assuming that we have, this is some kind of superfluid medium, And which we have in matter, yes, then the size of our experimental setup is of the order of, say, 10 So we take less with a Yes, the size is actually a glass of liquid, Yes, the Sickle is current and the maximum character of the diameter of the quantum filament can be estimated based on the width of the narrowest Well, let's take, let's say the order of a micron.
Then the cumulation coefficient of kinetic energy Such a system will be of the order of or more than 10, 8, that is, the eighth time the energy, Here are these quantum particles. Yes, it will be more than the energy of classical ones, if we considered it as a classical liquid. This is a very important, in fact, result.
And he explains Where great energies come from. That is, she creates a twist in the area of another flow of superfluid liquid and the second curved thread moves along with this flow.
If the direction of rotation is controlled by the circulation of two-generated filaments co-directionally, then they will rotate around a common center, and if they are illegal, they will move perpendicular to the plane in which they lie. This is the usual fluid dynamics here, as if there is nothing. Nothing like supernatural means quantum hydrodynamics work exactly the same effects as in the classical one, and the linear speed of movement of quantum curves of threads in both cases at the same time.
will be inversely proportional to the distance between them, that is, closely spaced threads will move, respectively, much faster if we have such a tangle of entangled quantum threads. The higher the concentration of these quantum threads, the faster they will move relative to each other in this coil, and you can keep such a parameter as the concentration of such quantum turbulence. It is equal to the total ratio of the total length in their unit volume to this volume.
Quantum turbulence is a very trendy modern topic. There are many articles on this topic. It is indeed observed in the superfluid than Helium, and there are experimental methods of research, and this picture just shows the result of numerical simulation of thread Here is from one article on the So why is it important for us that this very concept of quantum turbulence will be the key one in my story.
And here, but in addition to the movement of quantum threads of quantum turbulence, And this is a system of quantum It can still change its Here is the topology change due to the reconnection of quantum filaments, but such an effect of attachment, it also takes place in the classical case is shown here in the left figure, for example, the formation of a Curved ring due to the attachment of a curved filament in a classical fluid.
On the right, here are the stages of formation of many rings. Drive reconnections of quantum curve filament taxes here is direct, i.e. from quantum turbulence can be born just such rings in a large number of different sizes. Well, it is on this that the theory that I will speak, in fact, in our model is based. This is a strange radiation and what we call it this radiation.
It's just these vortex rings and vortex semirings, if we have the surface of this matter on the surface, these will be semirings, but it turns out that these vortex rings can leave this medium, and they can leave. Due Due to such an interesting effect, when the vortex ring approaches the surface of the liquid under certain conditions, it can deform this surface.
And to get out of it by creating a drop, Yes, and such a drop forms ice cream itself into it with an ice cream into it with a vortex ring, and in this form from the wifer ring can exist for a very long time, so the air medium can move at a speed, that is, from one object filled with this consistency to another object through the air. But this effect seems to be absolutely amazing, but in fact it is also known in classical physics in ordinary You can create such his ring.
which will pop up from the surface here is presented here is an excerpt from the Here are the results of a numerical analysis of the interaction of a pair of point vortices for such a Well, that is a one-dimensional problem with a free surface of a liquid in a gravitational field. But such an interaction, it is characterized by the so-called Frodo number which depends on the force of gravity and the size of the distance between the guy.
And so, depending on this number of frude, with the number of the pond much more than one, the vortex pair moves almost rectilinearly, as shown in the figure, a and, approaching the free surface of the liquid, jumps out of it along with the drop formed. And similar results were also obtained experimentally for the cases of curved rings, if there is an order of unity, then during interaction with the surface.
It's going to It just means you will not take off, but deformation of the surface will occur with the formation of surface waves. Finally, if hours are much less than unity, then Here is how the dotted lines will be the interaction of these curved pairs, as the interaction of the curved pair with a solid wall, that is, the surface is practically not deformed, the waffle pair will disperse. It will be smeared in that wall.
Well, on the system of equations, I will not dwell in detail. Basically, all everything that I told about strange radiation, but brought to mathematics, which means that this system of equations. She In general, it is based in fluid Wandau gleaned members. They are responsible for
The interaction of this matter with ordinary matter, which means that the latter is the first seed of This is the Landau hydrodynamics of the eighth equation. This is the foundation principle of the ansager, which was the theory, Landau, supplemented later, It was independently discovered by an insider, which interests us in the approximation we are interested in, if the atomic substance is at rest and homogeneous, and also under the condition that its temperature on Nu is practically constant everywhere, Yes and the space changes little in time, and also under the condition that the density of the normal components is much less than the density of all current ones, we believe that the conditions are met.
This whole system is greatly simplified, in fact it is reduced. To the Euler equation to the equation of continuity here. Well, and here is the equation of no dependence and the insider This system of equations describes any quantum turbulence, and it describes the propagation of Bethel rings in
So, but in this form in this form, So in this system there is no dissipation, that is, in fact, This system describes the case of long-lived objects that do not waste energy, including not spending on interaction with An ordinary substance thus no trace. So far, in this case, it is not assumed, but in this form, the radiation passes through a dense atomic substance in order for the interaction to And such a ring it should hook on some Object that is What, in fact, does this ring interact with ordinary So this is the object. It's how we think. It's just those, the most solid inclusions, which, in which, in fact, consist of a normal component, therefore
And the general system of equations that describes the tracks of the country of radiation are presented here on this slide, the first five first four equations 5 6 7 8 is an equation in excess of current components, intersensation, and equation 9 10 is an equation that describes the behavior of these solid particles. And what about these particles, there can be a lot here? Here the index is the number of this particle, that is, in fact, this is the universal system of equations e. E for any number of particles and for any number of quantum hicles there, which can propagate here, which can be captured You're capturing and distributing and shaping That is, in fact, uh, what we are talking about is a complete theory.
Describing tracks of strange radiation and so far the only theory brought to a system of equations that can be calculated, checked and compared with the reality of strange USE radiation. Here, well, in addition to everything else, it means that a very important factor. There are many qualitative qualitative confirmations of this Here in particular double tracks when the half ring captures two such And in particular one of such confirmations. This is the drawing of various tracks, because, depending on the shape and size of e, the particles that the ring captures, we will get one or another As you can see in these photos, this is They really are similar. All of them are different from each other.
Well, those results, which I talked about, this is not a new result. They, in principle, are also in the article that I sent out to everyone. And now I'm moving As a matter of fact, to the new results that were obtained, but relatively recently. So, apparently between strange radiation and Lena reactions there is some relationship.
In any case, I found that always. The transmutation of the elements is accompanied by this very strange radiation, and even Rudskoy proposed three variants of this connection, as, strictly speaking, from elementary logic it follows that either Lena a generates strange radiation or strange radiation generates Lena, or there is some unknown cause that is the cause or reaction and strange radiation.
Purely logically, there can be another option, that this is just a coincidence that we see both at the same time in the same experiments, but this is so incredible. And what, apparently, this option should not be But how are these all three cases interpreted within the framework of this theory, huh? Is it possible that Lenar generates from this radiation that we say, in principle, there is no reason to think so, but in any case, the mechanism for this would be completely Is it possible that the radiation generates Lena in principle, there is nothing surprising in this, because the energy of delivery, according to modern estimates, But such a particle is a ring, or a ring of quantum energy of the order of GF and more.
And in this way this energy is more than enough to overcome the Coulomb barrier and start some reactions, but there is an expression against this The fact is that, after all, this radiation is not so much, of course, not as small as the traces that we see, because most of the particles do not leave traces for this, propagates inside the substance, passes through it, and so on, but still they seem to be Well, not so much here, but it's another matter if we are dealing with quantum Here is quantum turbulence, it obviously can generate for this radiation and because of high concentration.
There is every reason to think that it may also be. Catalyst Lena Especially since, as we said, the accumulation of energy is quite large. Here and in this way can in this way turbulence, which has high energy, can. Question question Next how much?
How much In general, what is needed for this quantum turbulence to be an effective source of this radiation and Lena That is, in general, the Unified scheme looks like this, there are some processes going on in dense matter about We'll talk later what the process is that gives rise to quantum This is quantum turbulence, And on the one hand, it is a source of Lena, on the other hand, and it can generate for this radiation, but for this radiation and quantum turbulence are mutually convertible things, that is, a high concentration for this radiation can lead to the formation of quantum turbulence, But the question is, how? how? under what conditions can it
No, foam and here from pure logical It is important to pay attention to two factors, firstly, there must be a high concentration of the substance, and secondly, there must be a high frequency of reconnection of the quantum threads of the volume in this case, in this case, it can transfer energy to some external object and can potentially launch the euro But in addition, there must be a suitable composition of the substance in order for this reaction to be started.
Well, what can I say, But in principle, this is a scheme, it does not give us a theory, Lena That is, how does Lena herself proceed under the action, but she gives us something no less useful, she gives us some conditions that need to be created. To start the process.
And these conditions. About these conditions I will just talk below, that is, in fact, these are some ways of generating quantum turbulence and But what is the cause of the quantum turbulence of radiation and how to create them in matter. Here it is In general terms, it is now clear.
In total, I will list the main methods, 5. And they are all based on the properties of a super-flowing fluid. A But before talking about this, it is necessary, apparently, to do some introductory That's just about these properties.
I will build my story as follows. I'm going to talk about the property, then it is said how this property is. Helps to help us create quantum turbulence. So, the first property, and among the many exotic properties in addition to the current Helium, one of the most interesting is super thermal What is super thermal conductivity? The point is that from the point of view of the articulation theory, the uh liquid consists of two components: a superfluid and a normal These components can pass through each other. They can turn into each other. If you heat a liquid, your current company turns into normal if you cool it. Ah, the normal component turns into a vertical one and you have a counter current from the heater, the normal component flows from the refrigerator towards there are components, the more. You create temperature.
The more speed is the meeting of these oncoming flows and, accordingly, thanks to these flows, you have heat exchange, this is called internal How effective is this process in liquid business. Well liquid gel has its own thermal conductivity, as in any classical liquid and note. This thermal conductivity is six orders of magnitude less than the thermal conductivity that creates internal convection.
That is, this mechanism is extremely efficient, these speeds can be quite large, but this speed is limited by the fact that at a certain critical speed, and the laminar flow goes from a turbulent regime and beyond. Current components appear here is the same quantum turbulence, about which we talked a lot today. From here follows the first way to generate quantum turbulence radiation., That is, if you create a temperature gradient in an ordinary dense atomic substance.
This leads to internal convection when it reaches some critical value. She goes over goes into a turbulent regime, and we get That same quantum turbulence. And the classic experiment of Parkhomov, as I think, is the case when it is created just. Temperature gradient, But everything is not so simple, if we talk about this critical speed about this critical speed parameter that needs to be achieved, then it turns out that it is proportional not only to temperature gradients, but to temperature, and to temperature to the third degree, moreover, that is, it is not enough to create a temperature gradient in a substance; it is necessary to create both a large temperature gradient and a high temperature at the same time, but the temperature will not work such an internal convection of heating the working substance with the help of an electric This temperature is due to the fact that each each turn of the spiral. It warms up the day the temperature arises, between proper speaking.
surrounding Substance a I have to say that there are experimental works, there are experimenters who have realized the importance of this temperature gradient. I will give the work of desires as an Here, I ask you to pay attention to her desire, as far as I know, Here is the first who understood that it is necessary not only to heat up the spiral, but it is necessary to create a temperature gradient.
And he stared at his He used special methods there to create this temperature gradient. And when this temperature limit was created. And there was, apparently, and as if without it there was a temperature day, but the methods that he used increased the heating of the temperature, the effect increased according to And here is the first way.
The second way to generate turbulence is actually similar to 1 But here, too, some introduction is required, And one more amazing property of supercurrent Helium is the so-called thermomechanical effect or the spouting effect? It manifests itself in the fact that different pressures arise above the flowing liquid at in the event that the temperature difference becomes as follows. And, if you exist, here is the so-called this is such a powder through which passes in excess of the current component, and the normal component due to the large friction force cannot pass in our case, it plays a role.
Ordinary matter ordinary matter easily passes over the current quintessence component, and the normal component is slowed down, it is not braked at all, but it does not slow down by completely ordinary matter. And if you create, here in this container is separated from the main This over the gap, if you create its capacitance, increased temperature.
And that will lead to the formation of a normal component. So above the current component will go there to restore the balance, excess pressure will be formed here, the fountain will beat, and such a fountain. He can hit tens of This is an experimental It's all received not only theoretically. It's experimental all tested, so a similar effect. will be observed in our case, that is, in fact, it consists in the fact that you just have to heat the surface, locally create a large temperature chest.
Then, at a certain critical speed, this current will also turn into turbulent one, it looks like Let's say you know a strong heating of the surface at some point to create a hot spot. You're starting to drink. This fountain of vintessence at some point, it passes under certain parameters, it passes into a turbulent regime and you get, and quantum turbulence on the surface, uh, on your surface. Naturally, we do not see any of this.
Now, since this matter is not invisible, but, as it were, But the effect we see, it means that here it is interesting that the criterion is very similar to the previous one, that is, the critical speed is proportional to the temperature gradient multiplied by the temperature to the third power, that is, in addition to the gradient, the temperature is also necessary heat the surface, but the coefficient here is different, that is, create on the surface. This effect is much easier than creating it in depth.
But the disadvantage is that deep down you have a voluminous process going on, and on the surface there are superficial ones and I will carry much less substance involved in this process, that means. That the main conclusion is that no matter how you create this temperature gradient on the You can create the next discharge as it was sent to him in that case, you cathode spots will be the reasons for creating this temperature gradient You can make electron beam melting of Like an experiment salty. Here in the end, you can heat with an electric current or a laser beam?
In any case, there will be an ingredient of temperature and when you reach certain critical parameters you have. This process must And if if it's all right, Yes And in principle, all ends meet then converge quite well, then all that's all about what I'm talking about, now it's just practically instructions for creating flax reactors. But, if we talk about the following mechanism for generating quantum turbulence
It is already based on a slightly different effect in principle, which means, again, some introductory ones. The fact is that it is not so easy to set the current component in motion. If you place a glass with a superfluid of some kind of fan or some kind of tube. Start spinning somehow and move, then it will not cause movement over the current component, it will just flow around the blades of your fan, and that's it.
The classical andronicus experiment is based on this, shvelli, which means the liquid in the heart of a heap of gels, a stack of metal disks was placed on a thread. And this stack of disks could, Well, as a whole on this thread could carry out rotational vibrations. So that's when gels had to heart a bunch of fortune. And it must be said that these discs are quite close to each So it's ok gel components she was fond of. Eh, these this stop.
As I said No, in this way the period of oscillation of rotational oscillations, of this system, it depended on the concentration of the normal component, if the temperature decreased, the concentration of the normal component fell, the period of oscillation changed accordingly in this way, it was possible to build, in Here is a dependence of the concentration of normal temperature.
So what is interesting for us. And all this means, what if we take some kind of solid body or liquid, we begin to rotate? Normal components of the client essence, and there, in general, there is little enough to say goodbye to our But with the vertical is clear.
And the question And how much will it continue, how much do we need to spin our object in order for the effect to change quality, as it were. It turns out there is some critical speed relative to the motion of the certifying components and ordinary matter, upon reaching which turbulence will begin to arise. And this means that if we just take, for example, an ordinary liquid and create some stool flow in it.
But upon reaching some critical speed, here is this argument, and we simply have to get quantum turbulence And what about here it can be considered not only not only a dense liquid, but also a gas at high pressure and, in particular, hydrodynamic cavitation, which Shishkin, for example, can give a lot more, which means that it could have brought some phenomena.
Associated with this effect, here, but according to private messages and in a turbulent flow of dense gas in a dense park in particular. Here Shishkin also received as a result of such a trend observed tracks of strange study. Basically, this method has many advantages in particular. It allows for a long time and in your volume to carry out the process, but as it were, here is the economic feasibility.
Here, on which we understandably cannot yet In any case, from this model it is clear what needs to be done, that is, it is necessary to achieve a certain critical speed, starting from which we will get. Here it is, in fact, a qualitatively new effect of quantum turbulence generation. Here, and finally the fourth way to generate quantum Here I will not torment you for a long time with In fact, it is very simple, And as we said in order to create quantum turbulence, you need to create a large high speed of relative motion, and ordinary matter is E, quintessence., And such a phenomenon should definitely be observed in any shock waves.
And the disadvantage of this method of generating quantum turbulence is that it is a very short-term process. That is, it occurs only at the moment when the shock wave passes through the substance, but this is a very strong effect, and this, in fact, was shown by Rudskoy, because experiments, and the speed and speed of transplantation of the generation of this strange radiation, if we compare them with the same processes in other And they were just colossal, because all the processes took place there in literally microseconds, which means that similar effects should be observed in experimental laser ablation. Here is an example, shakhiev, but what does the shafi, So when bombarded by particles.
Targets can be both microparticles and macroscopic objects., That is, if a micron particle is a date, the width is assigned to the effect, if these are large objects, then, for example, there are a lot of messages about anomalous effects when a bullet interacts with a target. Here, and about what Baranov reported in his time? Dmitry Sergeevich here, well, the fifth generation method, huh?
Actually this is the way to This is a way to generate z-radiation from previously created quantum And here it will be necessary to tell about one more effect. This is the pinning effect. The so-called ping effect is that the quantum under certain conditions can be caught on the inhomogeneity of matter. And if under normal conditions, if there were no pinning effect, the quantum vortex would be in constant motion sooner or later, then this led to its energy loss to the exits of these vife and beyond the limits of the volume of matter, and, as it were, turbulence all this Uh, one way or another it would end if these whirlwind, but plugged, that is, they sit on some defects of the substance.
That and defects do not jump off do not break, then in this form, this is quantum, turbulence, theoretically can exist Arbitrarily long. And this spinning effect is being actively studied. But not so much for superfluid liquids, where it does not have any applications. It is being studied for superfluid electron It's the famous apricot swirl of all current e-liquid and a lot of papers on the subject. That's just just that Random specific example is given.
These mikli can be visualized and visualization methods. And so, if we take, for example, only a thin superconducting film. Didn't kill These are visible in the form. Here are such luminous points. Shown, that is, they are in some specific places. They sit on the peeling centers and do not move anywhere. And there are methods to move them special to shift to disrupt these pinning centers. Here in this paper, just such a method was described, when we create a temperature gradient with the help of a laser, it causes movement over the current component of the liquid, it tears these vortexes from the peeling centers and moves them to a new position, where they again find new ones there in the center of the peeling and Thus. That move these quantum and uh, that moved their orderly structure. Here they wrote here, but in this it means apricots.
But it's just here, as a concrete What is the pinning effect, how does it all look like a question, but is there such a pinning effect analogous to this pinning effect for quantum print essences? We believe that there are direct indications of What is this indication? Look here. It is known that 3 countries in the radiation are generally speaking not rectilinear, that is, along with rectilinear sections there are breaks in these tracks and there are a smooth turn of the tracks.
Well, if the kink, they may be associated with a collision with something, there are many options, possibly different, otherwise a smooth turn from the point of view of conventional physics, if we have a track, and we see a smooth turn of this This can only mean one thing, that some field acts on this particle on this object, that is, the particle unfolds under the influence of an external field.
But if it's quantum, ring or semi ring, what kind of field? Can she act to make her turn the trajectory? But the answer is theory gives the answer. This answer is unequivocal and It must be a field of velocities and such a field of velocities. In this substance there is simply a certain field to say where the speeds come from, it is created by a quantum thread. That is, in matter. Here in the same film on which it was filmed should initially be in some quantity these quantum threads.
And these turns., They just show us where these, where these quantum curved threads are, But if these quantum curved threads, for a long time, were in this substance, it means that they are not just there, just like that, they could not be there , which means they were attached by some kind of peeling Yes, that is, it is frozen quantum turbulence. Background, but if there is a background, quantum, frozen turbulence, then we can artificially fit turbulence with us in the same way, in some way, and in It will keep for quite a long time.
Here we are moving How do you understand the same effect. When materials that have previously been exposed in which turbulence has previously been created, then themselves for a long time continue to be sources of this radiation. Due to what this radiation occurs? Here Imagine that you have a fairly high concentration of interaction there, in fact, quite strong due to the high concentration between
At some point in time, by chance or by some 10 external factors, some kind of quantum thread breaks from this peeling center and begins to move under the influence of the remaining threads begins to move collides with other threads breaks some more threads these threads are attached. Yes formed quantum curves of the It all flies out in the form of a strange radiation, then everything hooks up again with some kind of centering and
As if and for some time it continues to persist. So, it’s interesting here, that’s what can be predicted, even what influences can lead to such a disruption of the disruption of the pinning state, such a depinning of these quantum ones and how you can influence this substance to get more intense, But for this radiation, here, but you can heat is the You can try to deform the acoustic effect and maybe even the optical effect, that is, almost any energy effect, but heating is guaranteed, but should lead to an increase in strange radiation from substances that
Picked up this quantum turbulence, which is panned with high concentration, but here you can cite the experiments of Rudsky himself, of course, which I said were the experiments of someone else. And here, in fact, that's all this is all the main methods of them are much more than these methods. Most likely, but So far we have identified the main set, probably, then some more will And that means once again their listed heating Gradient temperature inside a dense atomic substance heating ingredient temperature on the surface of a dense atomic substance turbulent flow of a liquid or gas of high density shock waves in a dense atomic substance or high density Well, substances that have been subjected to at least one of the above All of them are sources for this radiation and pay attention to all this fits very well with those experiments in which strange radiation is actually observed in practice. It exhausts the whole Spectrum of those experiments in which the country's radiation was observed, most likely, this is not I am anyway.
Which would tie tied up with each other all these facts and showed why strange radiation, then there are so different It would seem Here, starting to start heating the substance with the help of a spiral and ending there with shock waves and the creation of turbulence in the substance, Well, in And the I would like to touch on another interesting topic.
Not so much How much is more informative, I would say, because these are natural sources of quantum turbulence due to And what can in nature create the same effects that are created in our laboratory. Again, I do not claim to be complete now, but in any case, it is possible to list several obvious Well, the first one is the impact so-called impact craters on the surface of the Earth. That is, these are craters that arose during the fall of large celestial bodies.
Who passed the earth's atmosphere and formed such funnels. This is the famous crater in Arizona, several kilometers in diameter. But inside such imported craters, especially if you are some recent craters, you can look for traces of increased quantum turbulence, And at the moment of impact, this, of course, can be a very strong strong There are processes associated with quantum Maybe even a process, maybe walking means, and the second source is also obvious in practice, lying on the surface. This lava is hot, in contact with cold rock surfaces.
But in fairness, it must be said that not any, most likely, lava, but here you need to look among the hot types of lava. . Generation of quantum turbulence for this radiation Which means, well, a very close process is lava or magma, which contacts in depth with cold rocks.
This may include interaction with water. In this case, rather large temperature gradients can arise; such objects can also be a source of Well, the last thing to say is that all these processes, about which I spoke, are currently taking place on earth in very limited zones, but there was a period in the history of the planet when almost the entire E was such a source, And when the Planet was a planet, the Earth was in a state of an ocean of magma.
This period in the history of the Earth according to various estimates could take? From there tens to hundreds of millions of years, that is, it was a very long period when the earth was just being formed and was under the influence of bombardment by And here is the Earth Well, in general, the planet of the terrestrial group and other planets of other Star systems. Here in such a stage should be like how the whole planet should be an intense source of this But that's all I ended up with, the actual conclusions.
This is actually, in short, but in fact it is possible to build a related consistent theory of strange or Z radiation. Nobody could explain, that's all this list of properties, no one is even close.
And, as it were, but not only that, that's what has been added now is that those methods of creation, But this radiation, Yes, which the theory predicts, in fact, they all follow from the Here are all the ways to create They, too, consider this a coincidence or a pattern, but nevertheless, they all also very clearly coincide with that.
What is being reported is reported in various experimental works? That's all on this I Thank you for your attention, turn on the sound So just a second. Wait a second like this I allowed Turn on the sound, and you can ask questions.
And if you have any questions, please ask, here I see Savinkom Gennady turned on his microphone, yes, Gennady ask, I'm listening to Attentively. Thanks interesting interesting Here I want to understand, remove that gels there are two parts and a regular part, how they differ. Gennadiyechno, it is necessary here.
We need to study this issue, and I understand that I'll give you a brief overview of this. Yes, but in a few minutes, perhaps, perhaps, to understand everything to realize these effects they have been studied for And this is a model of how it happens? Everything, in fact, no one knows, but this model, which was created by Landau in the thirty-ninth year. Over the next 80 years, it turns out to be almost more than 80 years. She was very well tested. That is, we know for sure that this is going on as if it consists of two mutually permeable companies, that, as it were, part of the Helium atoms a, but are in a state of verticality in a state of condensate base, and the other part of the atoms. We get it right away the infrared radiation of any body above the temperature begins.
How does your radiation compare with infrared? Ah, but they are completely different things. A Watching infrared radiation does not correspond in any way to electromagnetic radiation, which means that this is matter, which will be matter Yes, concepts, And what is the difference from infrared radiation? What is different from your What are they from what are they made from different bricks or what from different bricks? Of course, Gennady And let's just ask a short See, of course, these are objects of different nature., Which means
mediator fields that describe the interaction there, these are dark matter with ordinary matter, and therefore, therefore, charged particles. Yes, they can create infrared radiation, which means that the quintessence is in no way electromagnetic, not electromagnetic. Not a type of electromagnetic does not create, most likely, So it only creates, Well, roughly speaking, that's what flies out of it its surface.
These are drops, these are particles of this matter, But these vortices are quantum. Yes, these are essentially quasi particles in this matter, here, which are described by ordinary hydrodynamic equations, If you are talking about quantum nature, then your quantum fluid means you are discrete. This is the basic underlying principle that you are laying down your model, right?
Well, you know, even I did not say that I am Here, if we return, if we return to this system of equations, you understand, it was laid down, you can say, the authors are the authors of this model. Yes, if we return to the original system, and the quantum Here are laid only in the last equation. Here, if you carefully look at the constant bar, here, throughout this huge There is only in the last equation, And in fact, quantum properties express equation 8 and equation seven also partly, which means that a very tricky effect is obtained there, in principle, the system of equations from the first to the fourth is a classical system of equations, and quantization in it arises due to the fact that we impose certain conditions on the classical systems of equations from the set of solutions, as if from
A very small subset and, as it were, this small subset is quantum Here is our quantized solution quantization is very, by the way, similar to the early This is noted by many that this model is very similar to the early theory of a thief, but, as it were, of the whole set of You choose only those that match the postulates of the city. Here, if something similar happens, that is, from the whole subset, perhaps there are currents you choose only those that correspond to a certain quantum condition. Like this.
Well, in general, what is a quantum liquid in simple words Gennady, I won’t be able to answer all your questions. And this, well, in simple This is impossible to This is the whole lecture. I was glad, but let's give accessibility, it's warm there you have a model on the one hand, the heat goes here, on the other It's cooling down there. That's with a fractured You have all the fluidity there and it turns out what is it?
Here is your your quantum model, What is heat? In the liquid phase heap, but heat, heat. This heat is defined the same way as in all other Here look at Theories of superfluidity A heap of liquid transfers heat Only the normal component, the current component, it does not transfer heat, in general this is the key point, therefore, in this effect, internal diffusion, yes, When you have internal convection, When you have oncoming flows are normal supercurrent components at the meeting of each You are heat tolerant Only normal Here are the normal components transfer heat, From this cold Like this and due to this superconductivity or super thermal conductivity, it turns out that your particle loses, they do not interact with the external environment, there are no forces that prevent the movement of your fluid.
Here is the superfluidity it turns out when nothing interferes. There are no external forces that hinder the movement due to which it will get so it turns Well, everything is quantum, these are the explanations of this Land's explanation about these two components of the thirty-ninth year 80 years have passed, what now in general? What does it look like now or in 80 Nothing new came up with an explanation for articity, nothing fundamentally Nothing new. Not Invented here, nothing And how would there be ether, there is some kind of interaction of baren matter, and matter and matter. AI dark matter has such says has some kind of This is the interaction Either there is verticality, or some fluidity. Why is no one thinking about Why is everyone trying to explain with eight-year-old models?
Bokash theory, That's not It's Got it Thank you no more questions, so good. And Alexander is a very interesting report, there was a lot of interesting things, but somehow there was very little about nuclear Well, about transplantation, that's the only thing I can say?
No model yet, so there are some considerations. What is the plan, which means it's obvious that here is the energy of these objects here. Particles for this radiation of the energy of motion of these quantum threads of this energy are more than enough to overcome any barriers. And this is an important point, that any barriers, but Coulomb ones, that is, these mechanisms are potentially capable of launching any reactions. And here, but obviously if we are right, this process is underway.
And because if it were the interaction of an ordinary particle, high-energy with matter, yes, then it would be clear that the processes would go away the way we see radioactive elements. It would be radiation, which means, but there is none of this. This indicates. What, what is the process in general, not classical, And this process, in general, has no I don't know any analogues of such processes, when macroscopic macroscopic quantum particle, in fact, is a quantum, some kind of interconnected And what is This is a quantum ring, right? That's why it has such great energy, because it is the energy of movement of a large number of particles. Yes, but as a whole, it behaves like a quasi-particle interacts like a whole. That is, it is not just a quantum object. This is a macroscopic quantum what why and this is how this interaction occurs, and in fact the theory of the interaction of such objects with ordinary matter with ordinary quantum particles, it has not been developed. We do not know.
Happens while I as though to guess on this subject do not want. Here and Well we do not know. I think it won't be built for a very long But the fact that we have a high-energy object there already makes the presence of nuclear reactions, not surprising, after all. Well, imagine that we now have a Imagine that we have a substance heated to some hundreds of millions of Nobody would be surprised. What happens in a nuclear reaction?
Here, and the energy of these particles corresponds to the colossal temperature. That is, therefore, Well, it is not surprising that in general such reactions take place, but they go, indeed, in some way for us, for the time being, an incomprehensible I have my own ideas and considerations. What could this channel But that would just be another hypothesis, just to that wine list of hypotheses that I voiced today, so it's better. I won't talk about it for now. Thank you.
Chistolinov A. V., (2023), “Long-lived luminous formations in the atmosphere and strange radiation”, Joint Institute for High Temperatures of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Izhorskaya st.13 bd.2, Moscow,125412, Russia